Some of the most important tools to help stop the COVID-19 pandemic are safe and effective vaccines. Please check this page often for new information.
The top three things you should know about the COVID-19 vaccines are:
- The vaccine is free. As a Blue Shield of California or Blue Shield of California Promise Health Plan member, you will have no out-of-pocket costs. The vaccine is fully covered for you. In fact, vaccines are free to all Californians with or without insurance.
- Additional doses and booster shots of COVID-19 vaccines are now being offered. Read more.
- The Pfizer vaccine has been authorized for children ages 5 and older.
Table of contents
- About the vaccines
- Availability and eligibility
- Getting a vaccine: what to expect
- After the vaccine: what to expect
About the vaccines
The Pfizer vaccine, named Comirnaty, is the first COVID-19 vaccine to receive full approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for people 16 years and older. It continues to have an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for:
- Children ages 5 to 15
- Additional doses and booster shots.
The Moderna and Johnson & Johnson vaccines have been granted an EUA for people 18 years and older.
What is the difference between Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) and full approval?
The FDA ensures that medical products are safe and effective for us to use. Getting FDA approval can be a long process. EUA helps the FDA provide faster access to medical products during a health emergency. It balances known risks and benefits to the public.
EUA helps when there are no other adequate, approved, and available options. EUAs may change as the FDA completes approvals, clears, or licenses the medicines or treatments.
You can learn more about EUAs on the FDA’s website.
Are these vaccines safe?
Safety is a top priority. The U.S. vaccine safety system ensures that all COVID-19 vaccines are as safe as possible.
COVID-19 vaccines are carefully looked at in clinical trials with thousands of people. In each of these trials, people are closely checked for any health risks or adverse effects. Once the trial results indicate the vaccine is safe and effective, it can be authorized by the FDA.
Checks on the vaccine continue in the real-world setting. These can help researchers know if there might be very rare side effects or long-term risks not seen in trials.
Also, California formed a Scientific Safety Review Workgroup. This workgroup looks at data to help ensure the COVID-19 vaccines meet safety requirements.
Read this fact sheet about the vaccines.
How were these vaccines developed so quickly?
It may seem that these vaccines were developed fast. But there was no cutting corners. The apparent speed comes from worldwide collaboration between:
- pharmaceutical companies, and
- new technologies.
The U.S. government was able to help aid faster development, too. It worked closely with pharmaceutical companies and supported swift distribution efforts.
All vaccines come with side effects or some risk. But the FDA, in authorizing the COVID-19 vaccines, concluded that their benefits outweighed their risks.
Are these vaccines effective?
Each authorized vaccine has been found to be effective in protecting against COVID-19. What we know today is that these vaccines decrease:
- the risk of getting COVID-19,
- severe illness or hospitalization because of COVID-19, and
- death from COVID-19.
|Vaccine||Efficacy from clinical trials|
|Comirnaty (Pfizer)||91% effectiveness in preventing COVID-19 disease in clinical trials|
|Moderna||94% effectiveness in preventing COVID-19 disease in clinical trials|
|Johnson & Johnson||85% at preventing severe illness after 28 days from single dose in clinical trials|
Compare that to the annual flu vaccine, which is between 40% and 60% effective at reducing the risk of flu illness.
How is effectiveness measured for the COVID-19 vaccines?
All authorized vaccines currently available in the United States have been found to be safe and effective. The relative differences in effectiveness results come from the varied factors below. These cannot be used to directly compare the vaccines.
1. Sample size
The number of people who took part in the clinical trials varied by vaccine.
Each vaccine was tested in different places around the world.
The Johnson & Johnson vaccine was tested later in the pandemic. During this time, new strains were becoming more common in certain parts of the world. Pfizer and Moderna vaccines were not initially tested against these strains. Some of these strains seem to spread more easily and quickly.
Each of the clinical trials used a range of doses given at different times to measure effectiveness.
How is the Johnson & Johnson vaccine different from the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines?
Unlike the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, which are mRNA vaccines, the Johnson & Johnson vaccine:
- is a single-dose vaccine,
- can be stored in a standard refrigerator,
- offers faster protection,
- may limit the spread of the virus, and
- uses viral vector technology to carry genetic material into cells that then leads to the cell making antibodies to fight infection. This vector is a common cold type of virus that has been changed so it cannot cause disease.
This means that this vaccine can be passed out faster to more people. In turn, this may help us get to herd immunity faster.
What are the ingredients in the COVID-19 vaccines?
The ingredients in the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines include pieces of mRNA, lipids, salts, sugars, and buffers. These ingredients help make the solution stable and get into cells where they need to be to work.
The Johnson & Johnson vaccine includes a common cold type of virus that has been changed so it cannot cause disease. This allows the genetic material placed inside the viral vector to create the spike proteins that then lead to making antibodies. As with the other vaccines, there are buffers and other ingredients to help make the solution stable.
These vaccines do not contain:
- preservatives, or
You can find a full list of the ingredients for these COVID-19 vaccines at the CDC’s website:
- Information about the Pfizer vaccines
- Information about the Moderna vaccine
- Information about the Johnson & Johnson vaccine
Why get a vaccine?
In a single year, COVID-19 became a leading cause of death in the United States. Getting the vaccine will help protect you and your loved ones from the risk of getting COVID-19.
The risks from getting the vaccine are far less than getting sick from COVID-19 and the potential long-term effects of the virus.
The pandemic has also had major impacts on local and national economies. Getting vaccinated is the first step to ending the pandemic. It puts us on the road to faster economic recovery.
The more people who get vaccinated, the easier it will be to return to “normal” daily life.
Learn more about the benefits of vaccination from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
How many COVID-19 vaccine doses do I need? When do I need them?
This varies by vaccine.
|Vaccine||# of doses||Waiting period between doses|
|Comirnaty (Pfizer)||2||21 days apart|
|Moderna||2||28 days apart|
|Johnson & Johnson||1||N/A|
If you skip the second shot of the two-dose vaccines, you will not have the full protection that the vaccine offers. It is important to get both shots for Pfizer and Moderna to be fully protected.
What’s the difference between the booster shot and the additional dose?
They are basically the same. Additional doses are given to “boost” the immune response from the vaccine. Some people with weakened immune systems may need a boost. This helps get a response that most people get from the regular dose. Others may need a boost due to the effectiveness of the vaccine lessening over time.
In the case of the Moderna vaccine, the booster shot is only a half dose. The additional dose is full strength.
Will I need an additional dose or booster shot?
People with moderately to severely compromised immune systems are eligible to get an additional dose of either the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine. Talk to your doctor about whether you can receive your third shot of either vaccine or whether you should receive the same brand as your first two doses.
Also, booster shots have been approved for all three vaccines.
Anyone 18 and older who received the Johnson & Johnson vaccine is eligible for a booster if it has been at least two months since their shot. The CDC has found that it’s safe to receive a booster of any of the three vaccines.
If you received either the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine, you can get the booster if it has been at least five months since your second dose. The Pfizer booster is available to anyone 12 years and older. The Moderna booster is available to anyone 18 and older.
When you are eligible, you can receive a booster of any of the vaccines. It does not have to be the same one you received initially.
If you have a medical condition, please ask your doctor about whether an additional dose or booster shot is right for you.
Are there side effects to the COVID-19 vaccines?
Yes. Side effects are normal with most vaccines They are usually mild. Reported side effects include:
- muscle aches,
- joint pain,
- pain at the injection site, and
These symptoms are signs that the body is building immunity. They may be uncomfortable. The good news is these side effects don’t last long.
Severe allergic reactions to the COVID-19 vaccines are extremely rare. They have not resulted in any deaths.
If you received a Johnson & Johnson vaccine in the past three weeks, please watch for these rare blood clot symptoms. These include:
severe or constant headache or blurred vision,
constant pain of the abdomen,
leg pain or swelling,
shortness of breath, and
easy bruising or tiny blood spots under the skin beyond the site of the injection.
If you develop any of the above symptoms after receiving the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, contact your healthcare provider right away.
How long does it take to be protected after vaccination?
Protection from the vaccines is not instant. It varies by type. In most cases, it will take two weeks after the full dose to get the most protection the vaccine can offer.
As the Johnson & Johnson vaccine is a single shot, it provides the quickest protection.
For the two-dose Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, some protection begins building after the first shot (about 50% effectiveness two weeks after the first dose). But you’ll get the most protection one to two weeks after the second dose.
|Vaccine||Timing for full protection||Waiting period between doses|
|Comirnaty (Pfizer)||5 weeks after first dose||3 weeks|
|Moderna||6 weeks after first dose||4 weeks|
|Johnson & Johnson||2 weeks after first and only dose||No waiting period|
I heard there are new COVID-19 strains. Are the vaccines effective against them?
All viruses mutate over time. COVID-19 is no exception. Most mutations have little to no impact on how a virus behaves. They disappear over time.
Of the COVID-19 strains that have mutated, there are two that are currently dominant in the United States: "delta" and "omicron." The CDC and California Department of Public Health (CDPH) are tracking these strains.
Even if vaccines are less effective against some variants, they are still worth getting. This is because they make infections less serious.
In other words, if you are vaccinated, but still get the virus, there is less risk of hospitalization or death.
Continue to follow the preventive measures recommended. These are also effective against the new variants:
- getting the COVID-19 vaccine,
- staying home when sick,
- wearing a mask when leaving home, especially indoors,
- limiting interactions with people outside your household,
- keeping a physical distance of at least six feet, and
- washing hands for 20 seconds.
Availability and eligibility
Do I need to have insurance to get the vaccine?
No, the vaccine is available to all Californians regardless of their insurance coverage.
You may be asked about your coverage when you schedule an appointment or at your appointment. This is only so the hospital or clinic knows whether to charge the federal government or your health plan.
No one can refuse you a COVID-19 vaccine because you do not have coverage.
Do I have to be a U.S. citizen or California resident to get the vaccine?
No. The vaccine is available to all Californians regardless of their immigration status. You do not need to share your status with anyone to get the vaccine.
The Biden administration has stated that:
- Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and Customs and Border Protection (CBP) will not be at vaccination sites.
- Public health employees cannot block undocumented people from getting the vaccine.
If you have concerns about sharing personal information, speak to allies in your community. You may also reach out to one of these community organizations.
Learn more about help for immigrants.
When can I get a COVID-19 vaccine?
California has opened eligibility for COVID-19 vaccines to everyone 5 years and older. You can check to find a vaccine appointment on My Turn, your county or local site, or other locations like pharmacies.
Please note that every state sets its own criteria for vaccination. Please check your state or local county health department for more information. You can also check vaccines.gov to find COVID-19 vaccine locations near you.
When should I receive my additional vaccine dose if my provider recommends it for my medical condition?
The additional dose of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines should be given at least 28 days after getting your second dose. When possible, mRNA COVID-19 vaccination doses (including the first two and the additional dose) should be given at least two weeks before the start of therapies that weaken the immune system.
When can I get a COVID-19 vaccine booster?
If you received the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine, you are eligible for a booster five months or more after receiving your second dose. Note that people must be 12 years or older to be eligible for the Pfizer booster.
All people 18 and older who got the Johnson & Johnson vaccine can get a booster two months or more after getting their initial shot.
If you are eligible, you can choose from any of the three vaccine brands for your booster shot. It does not have to be the same vaccine that you initially received.
Are there certain groups that should not get the COVID-19 vaccine?
Yes. There are certain groups that should not get any of these vaccines. These include children 4 years and younger. People who are sick should wait until they are well to get vaccinated.
Some people should avoid specific vaccines due to allergies and certain medical conditions. See below for more details.
If you are sick or had COVID-19
If you have a moderate to severe illness or feel sick, you should likely wait to get vaccinated.
The CDC recommends:
- If you tested positive, had only mild symptoms, and were not treated for COVID-19, you should wait at least 10 days since the start of COVID-19 symptoms before getting vaccinated. You should also meet the criteria to end isolation before getting the COVID-19 vaccine.
- If you recovered from a COVID-19 infection and were treated with monoclonal antibodies or convalescent plasma, you should wait 90 days to get the vaccine.
Children under 5 years old
The Pfizer vaccine has been authorized for use in children 5 years and older. Only the Pfizer vaccine is authorized for use in children between the ages of 5 and 17. At this time, children 4 years and younger should not get any COVID-19 vaccine. The Moderna and Johnson & Johnson vaccines are currently only authorized for use in adults (18 years and older). Clinical trials are ongoing for children 4 years and younger. They will be included if the vaccines are shown to be safe and effective.
|Johnson & Johnson||18|
According to the CDC, you should talk with a doctor first before getting a COVID-19 vaccine if you:
- have severe allergies not related to vaccines or injections, or carry an epinephrine (Epi-Pen, Auvi-Q, etc.) injector. For example, if you have a family history of severe allergic reactions, a history of allergies to oral medications, or a milder allergy to vaccines.
- have had a severe allergic reaction to other vaccines or injections.
- have had a severe allergic reaction or an immediate allergic reaction (within four hours of receiving vaccine) – even if not severe – to any ingredients in any of the COVID-19 vaccines in the past, you should discuss with your doctor if you should get a different approved vaccine. For example:
- If you are allergic to polyethylene glycol (PEG), you should not get an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer or Moderna). Ask your doctor if you can get the Johnson & Johnson vaccine.
- If you are allergic to polysorbate, you should not get the Johnson & Johnson vaccine. Ask your doctor if you can get an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine.
- have a severe or an instant allergic reaction – even if not severe – after the first dose, you should not get the second dose of the same vaccine. Your doctor can discuss your options with you. You may still be able to get a vaccine, depending on your specific case.
Specific medical conditions
Learn more about vaccine considerations for people with underlying medical conditions, such as people who:
- have a weakened immune system,
- have an autoimmune condition,
- have had Guillain-Barre syndrome, or
- have had Bell's palsy.
If you are planning to get the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine, tell the vaccination provider if you have a bleeding disorder or are on a blood thinner.
Can pregnant or breastfeeding women be vaccinated against COVID-19?
Yes. Pregnant women have a higher risk for complications from COVID-19. Many studies looked at the risks posed by the vaccine in early pregnancy. They did not find an increased risk of miscarriage among nearly 2,500 pregnant women who received the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine before 20 weeks of pregnancy. Other studies did not find any safety concerns for pregnant people who were vaccinated late in pregnancy or for their babies.
Healthcare workers have seen the number of pregnant people infected with COVID-19 rise since summer 2021. The increased risk of severe illness and pregnancy complications related to COVID-19 infection make vaccination for pregnant people more urgent than ever.
If you’re pregnant or breastfeeding, you should talk with a doctor about your risk of COVID-19 and how you might benefit from the vaccine.
Can I get my COVID-19 vaccine at the same time as other vaccines?
According to the CDC, you do not have to wait to get another vaccine, such as the flu shot. You may be allowed to get your vaccines at the same time. If you have any concerns about side effects or interactions with other vaccines, please discuss them with your doctor.
Do I get to choose which vaccine I get?
It depends. Vaccine supplies are distributed based on how the provider can store the vaccine. You may not be able to choose at all locations. At some sites, only one type of vaccine may be available.
You can check with your healthcare or vaccine provider to learn which vaccine they are using. But don’t delay your vaccine just to wait for one specific type if it’s not medically necessary. All options protect against severe illness, hospitalization, and death from COVID-19.
Also, remember, it’s recommended that you get the first and second doses from the same manufacturer if there are no health concerns (such as allergic reaction).
Can I get vaccinated outside of the state?
Yes. During the public health emergency, members who reside in California may get vaccinated in other states.
Residents in other states
Members who reside in other states may receive vaccines in their state. Please check your state, county, or local public health resources for details. You can also go to vaccines.gov for information about where to get a vaccine in each state.
Find out where you can get a vaccine.
I’ve already had COVID-19. Should I get a COVID-19 vaccine?
Yes. At this time, we do not know how long someone is protected from getting sick again after recovering from COVID-19. According to the CDC, there is no recommended interval between COVID-19 infection and vaccination, as long as you wait until the initial 10-day isolation period is over before getting vaccinated.
Getting a vaccine: what to expect
How much will the COVID-19 vaccine cost?
All COVID-19 vaccines are free. You do not have to pay any money to get the vaccine.
COVID-19 vaccines will be provided at no out-of-pocket costs to members and all Californians, whether insured or not. Vaccines are paid for by the U.S. government.
Vaccination providers will be able to charge administration fees for giving the shot. These will be paid for by Blue Shield of California, Blue Shield Promise, or the government.
How can I get the COVID-19 vaccine?
In most cases, you will need to make an appointment to get vaccinated. However, some locations are offering drop-in/walk-up appointments. This varies by provider and county. Check your local public health department for more details.
How can I make an appointment?
You have the options below or you can visit our Where to get a vaccine page. This page has more information on locations and websites to help you find a vaccination site and make an appointment.
California’s My Turn system allows you to find a vaccine appointment in two ways:
- Online at My Turn. You can search for appointments or sign up to be notified when more appointments open up. The state is updating this site regularly with new providers, locations, and appointments. The My Turn website is accessible to people with disabilities and in eight languages: English, Spanish, simplified and traditional Chinese, Arabic, Tagalog, Vietnamese, and Korean. A mobile phone is required for verification purposes.
- Calling the COVID-19 state hotline at (833) 422-4255 or (833) 4CA-4ALL. If you don’t have internet or a mobile phone that can accept text messages, you will need to call the hotline. It is accessible to people with disabilities and offers services in English and Spanish, with connections to interpretive services in more than 250 languages.
If you have a high-risk medical condition or disability, you will be able to request extra support through My Turn. These may include special hours or extra time at your vaccine site.
Learn more about My Turn.
Your healthcare provider
You may have already been contacted by your primary doctor to schedule a vaccine appointment. If you have a high-risk medical condition or disability, we recommend you try to get the vaccine through your doctor first. Your provider may also have mass vaccination clinics available.
Your local pharmacies may have vaccines and appointments available. See a list of pharmacies in California.
Your county or local health department’s website
These resources will continue to have information about how, when, and where to get a vaccine in your area.
Community pop-up clinics
Pop-up clinics can be helpful for people with high-risk medical conditions and disabilities. Many of these will be in specific areas throughout the state that can reach the most affected. Community partners are reaching out to people eligible to be vaccinated at their clinics directly.
Don’t forget to schedule your second dose, if needed.
If you get a Pfizer or Moderna vaccine, you will need to get a second dose. Note: Johnson & Johnson vaccines only need one appointment for a single shot.
Timeframes for second-dose vaccines will be based on which vaccine is available at the provider:
- 21-day window for Comirnaty (Pfizer)
- 28-day window for Moderna
What should I expect at the appointment?
You will need to check in and may be asked for a form of identification to match the name on the appointment.
Be prepared for a short wait on-site after your shot.
When you get vaccinated, you will need to wait for 15 to 30 minutes after getting the shot. This is so the healthcare team can see if you have an allergic reaction to it.
If you have an underlying medical condition or allergies, please notify the on-site staff so that they can observe you for at least 30 minutes.
Ask for your vaccination card or printout afterward.
This will tell you:
what COVID-19 vaccine you received,
the date you got it, and
where you got it.
This card can serve as proof that you received the COVID-19 vaccine. Tip: Take a picture of this card or printout, so you have a copy in case you lose it.
You can also get a digital copy of your vaccination card.
The CDC has information on what to expect at your appointment.
Will I need to verify I have a high-risk medical condition or disability or work status when I go to my appointment?
No. Everyone 5 years and older is now eligible to get vaccinated.
Do the vaccine providers need parental consent before giving the COVID-19 vaccine to a minor?
Yes. Vaccine providers must get consent from a parent, legal guardian, or other adult with legal custody before vaccinating a minor. But there are some exceptions:
- Emancipated minors do not need the consent of a parent or guardian to receive the COVID-19 vaccine.
- Providers may accept written consent from a parent or legal guardian of an unaccompanied minor.
- If a provider has written approval for general medical care of a minor on file, separate consent from a parent or guardian is not required. However, the provider may still request it.
- The county of San Francisco allows children 12 and older to receive the COVID-19 vaccine without parental consent. However, the healthcare provider administering the vaccine must first attempt to contact the child's parent or legal guardian to give them an opportunity to object.
If you are taking the minor to the vaccine appointment, you can provide your consent on-site.
Will vaccine sites be accessible?
All vaccine clinics in California are required to ensure sites and services are accessible in accordance with the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) requirements.
How do I get a vaccine at home if I can't travel to a vaccine site?
For homebound patients, check with your healthcare provider first. If your provider is unable to help you, check with your local health department or local pharmacy.
Also, the state has an At-Home Vaccination program. If you cannot leave your home to get vaccinated, you can indicate this when registering on My Turn or when calling the state’s COVID-19 hotline at (833) 422-4255. If eligible, you will be connected with your local health jurisdiction to arrange for in-home vaccination services.
I need help getting to the vaccine site. What resources are available to me?
There are a few free transportation services available to you depending on your health plan. If you have a Medicare Advantage, Medi-Cal, or Cal MediConnect plan, see below. You may be eligible for transportation services through your plan.
For all members
Transportation options include by car for patients who don’t need mobility support. Non-emergency medical transportation is available for patients who need mobility support.
Whether you need mobility support (wheelchair, gurney, etc.) or not, there are options for you:
- transportation by car
- non-emergency medical transportation for patients who need mobility support
For other options or if you have a different plan other than those noted below, check with your healthcare provider, local health department, or local pharmacy.
For Medicare Advantage, Medi-Cal and Cal MediConnect members
Some Blue Shield Medicare Advantage Plans, as well as Blue Shield Promise Medi-Cal and Cal MediConnect plans, may have access to transportation benefits. Refer to your Evidence of Coverage for benefit information. Or, call Customer Care at the number on your member ID card.
If your plan comes with this benefit, it includes roundtrip transportation to get the COVID-19 vaccine. Transportation services are available 24/7. They can only be used for appointment drop-off and pick-up. It cannot be used for drive-through vaccination clinics. You should try to schedule your ride 24 hours in advance.
To schedule a pickup:
- Eligible Blue Shield Medicare Advantage Plans: Call (855) 200-7544 (TTY:711)
- Blue Shield Promise Medi-Cal and Cal MediConnect plans: Call (877) 433-2178 (TTY: 711)
Can Blue Shield help me schedule a vaccine appointment?
We recommend that you call the COVID-19 state hotline at (833) 422-4255 or (833) 4CA-4ALL or use My Turn, for help with scheduling an appointment.
The hotline is accessible to people with disabilities. It offers services in English and Spanish, with connections to interpretive services in more than 250 languages.
How do I help my senior or disabled family member get an appointment?
You can sign up or schedule an appointment on their behalf on My Turn, You can use the same email address to assist your family members and friends.
Also, you can call and speak to their healthcare provider or a pharmacy to schedule an appointment on their behalf.
What should I do if I feel like I'm having symptoms prior to my appointment?
If you feel like you may have COVID-19 symptoms prior to your appointment, you should postpone it. Reschedule it when you have recovered from your illness and have met the criteria for ending isolation.
If you have COVID-19 but don’t have symptoms, you should also wait until you meet the criteria before getting the vaccine.
This guidance also applies to people who get COVID-19 before getting their second dose of vaccine.
The CDC recommends:
- If you tested positive, had only mild symptoms, and were not treated for COVID-19, you should wait at least 10 days after the start of COVID-19 symptoms. You should also satisfy criteria to discontinue isolation before getting the COVID-19 vaccine.
- If you recovered from a COVID-19 infection and were treated with monoclonal antibodies or convalescent plasma, you should wait 90 days to get the vaccine.
What if I miss my appointment for the second dose? Does timing matter?
You should get your second dose as close to the three to four week waiting period as possible. This will help ensure you get the best protection possible.
Can I mix vaccines? For example, if I get the Pfizer vaccine for my first dose, can I get the Moderna vaccine for the second dose?
No, this is not recommended. It’s better that you get the first and second doses from the same manufacturer. To ensure this happens, it’s best to go back to the place where you got your first vaccine if you can.
If you must go to a different location, the California Immunization Registry allows providers to check which vaccine you received for your first dose if needed.
For booster shots and additional doses, however, you do not need to get the same vaccine as you received before. You can choose any of the three vaccines.
If I get a vaccine at one location, do I have to go back to the same location?
It is preferred that you return to the same provider that gave your first dose. However, this may not always be possible. For example, long-term care residents may have received their first vaccine in the facility but then get discharged. In this case, they can go to another location that provides the same type of vaccine they first received. The type of vaccine you received is listed in your Medical Record or on the immunization card given to you after the first shot.
Also, the California Immunization Registry lets providers check which vaccine you received for your first dose. This can help ensure you get the same vaccine for your second dose.
You may also get a reminder card for your follow-up dose. Keep this card handy. It should include the type of vaccine you received. You can also take a photo of this card so you have it in case you lose the card.
After the vaccine: What to expect
What should I expect after getting the vaccine?
Chances are you will have some side effects after getting the vaccine. These are normal signs that your body is building protection. Side effects are normal with any vaccine. They should go away within a few days.
According to the CDC, common side effects on the arm where you got the shot include:
- redness, and
Common side effects throughout the rest of your body include:
- muscle pain,
- fever, and
Talk to your doctor about taking over-the-counter medicine for any pain and discomfort you may have after getting vaccinated. These may include ibuprofen, acetaminophen, aspirin, or antihistamines.
It is not recommended you take these medicines before vaccination. This helps prevent side effects.
To reduce pain and discomfort where you got the shot, the CDC recommends you:
- apply a clear, cool, wet washcloth over the area, and
- use or exercise your arm.
In addition, to reduce discomfort from fever, if you have one, drink plenty of fluids and dress lightly.
If you have experienced a side effect after COVID-19 vaccination, you can report it to:
I received a Johnson & Johnson vaccine. What do I need to know?
If you received your vaccine more than three weeks ago and have not had any of the symptoms noted below, you do not need to worry.
If you’ve had a Johnson & Johnson vaccine in the past one to three weeks, please watch for these rare blood clot symptoms. These include:
- severe or constant headache or blurred vision,
- constant pain of the abdomen,
- leg pain or swelling,
- shortness of breath,
- chest pain, and
- easy bruising or tiny blood spots under the skin beyond the site of the injection.
If you develop any of the above symptoms after receiving the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, contact your healthcare provider right away.
When should I call a doctor?
In most cases, discomfort from pain or fever is a normal sign that your body is building protection. Contact your doctor or healthcare provider:
- if the redness or tenderness where you got the shot gets worse after 24 hours, or
- if your side effects are worrying you or do not seem to be going away after a few days.
If you think you might be having a severe allergic reaction after leaving the vaccination site, seek immediate medical care by calling 911.
See the CDC's handout for details about what to expect after getting the vaccine.
If you got the Johnson & Johnson vaccine in the past three weeks and develop any of the above symptoms of a blood clot, contact your healthcare provider right away.
What should I do if I think I’m having an allergic reaction?
If you think you might be having a severe allergic reaction after leaving the vaccination provider site, seek immediate medical care by calling 911.
An allergic reaction is considered severe when a person needs to be treated with epinephrine or EpiPen© or if they must go to the hospital.
An immediate allergic reaction means a reaction within four hours of getting vaccinated, including symptoms such as:
- hives or rash all over your body,
- swelling of your face and throat,
- difficulty breathing,
- fast heartbeat, and
- dizziness and weakness.
If the allergic reaction – severe or not – was after an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer and Moderna), you should not get a second shot of either of these vaccines. Ask your doctor about your options.
Visit the CDC’s site to learn more about allergic reactions after a vaccine.
It’s been several days or weeks since I got the vaccine. Why do I now have a rash where I got the shot?
Some people develop a red, itchy, swollen, or painful rash where they got the shot.
These rashes can start a few days to more than a week after the first shot and are sometimes quite large. They are also known as “COVID arm.”
If you experience “COVID arm” after getting the first shot of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine, you should still get the second shot at the recommended interval.
Tell your vaccination provider that you experienced a rash or “COVID arm” after the first shot. They may suggest that you get the second shot in the other arm.
If the rash is itchy, you can take an antihistamine. If it is painful, you can take a pain medication. These include acetaminophen or a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) like ibuprofen.
What do I need to do if I’m vaccinated but have COVID-19 symptoms?
In the rare instance that you catch the virus after getting the vaccine, and are experiencing COVID-19 symptoms, you should contact your doctor. They may recommend you get a COVID-19 test.
If you have COVID-19, you should continue to follow current guidance to protect yourself and others.
I’m vaccinated but have been exposed to someone with COVID-19. What should I do?
Vaccinated people who have been exposed to someone with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 are not required to quarantine if they meet all the following criteria, according to the CDC:
- are fully vaccinated, meaning:
- it's been two weeks or more since getting the second dose in a two-dose series (Pfizer and Moderna), or
- it's been two weeks or more since getting one dose of a single-dose vaccine (Johnson & Johnson).
- are within three months of getting the last dose in the series, and
- have had no symptoms since the exposure.
People who do not meet all three of the above criteria should quarantine and follow current quarantine guidance.
Fully vaccinated people who do not need to quarantine should still watch for symptoms of COVID-19 for 14 days following exposure.
When can I consider myself fully vaccinated?
After any vaccination, it takes time for your body to build protection. People are considered fully vaccinated:
two weeks after the second dose of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines, or
two weeks after the single-dose of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine.
If it is sooner than that, you are not fully vaccinated. Keep using all the tools available to protect yourself and others until you are fully vaccinated.
What are the key things I should know after being fully vaccinated?
COVID-19 vaccines are effective at preventing COVID-19 disease, especially severe illness and death.
However, we’re still learning:
- how long the protection from the vaccines lasts.
- how effective the vaccines are against variants of the virus. Early data shows the vaccines may work well against some variants but could be less effective against others.
- how well the vaccines protect people with weakened immune systems. This includes people who take medications that weaken the immune system.
- how well the vaccines keep people from spreading COVID-19.
If you have a condition or are taking medications that weaken your immune system, you may NOT be fully protected even if you are fully vaccinated. Talk to your healthcare provider. Even after vaccination, you may need to keep taking all precautions.
What changed after California’s reopening on June 15, 2021?
The State of California aligned with CDC guidance that said restaurants, bars, gyms, stores, etc., could open without capacity limits or requirements to physically distance if they choose. Local health jurisdictions and businesses can still choose to require masks and/or enforce capacity limits.
Indoor events with more than 5,000 people and outdoor events with more than 10,000 people may require attendees to wear masks. They may also require them to show proof of vaccination or a pre-entry negative COVID-19 test.
What am I allowed to do after I’m fully vaccinated?
Remember, it takes two weeks after your second dose (or first dose of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine) to be fully vaccinated. At that time, according to the CDC, you can resume activities without physically distancing, except where required. This could be by federal, state, local, tribal, or territorial laws, rules, and regulations, including local business and workplace guidance.
Please note: If you live in a group setting (like a correctional or detention facility or group home) and are around someone who has COVID-19, you should still stay away from others for 10 days. You should also get tested, even if you don’t have symptoms. Group settings can include a correctional or detention facility or group home.
Can I travel after I’ve been fully vaccinated?
For domestic travel, if you’re fully vaccinated:
- You have to wear a mask at the transportation hub and during transportation.
- You can travel within the United States without getting a COVID-19 test before or after, unless required by local, state, or tribal health authorities. For example, Hawaii has some testing requirements in place.
- You do not have to quarantine after your trip.
For international travel, even if you’re fully vaccinated:
You need to pay close attention to the situation at your international destination before traveling outside the United States.
- You have to wear a mask at the transportation hub and during transportation.
- You do NOT need to get tested before leaving the United States unless your destination requires it.
- You need to show a negative test result or proof that you recovered from COVID-19 before boarding a flight to the United States.
- You should still get tested three to five days after international travel.
- You do NOT need to self-quarantine after arriving in the United States.
Will I still need to wear a mask after getting a COVID-19 vaccine?
With the emergence of more contagious variants, guidance on masks may change. This could be based on transmission rates and trends. Federal, state, and local requirements may differ. Be sure to check your county’s website for up-to-date mask guidance.
If you are not vaccinated, you need to wear a mask in both indoor and outdoor settings.
When fully vaccinated, do I still need to be extra cautious?
Even if you’re fully vaccinated:
- You still need to follow guidance at your workplace and other places that you visit.
- If you travel, you should still take precautions.
- You should watch out for symptoms of COVID-19, especially if you’ve been around someone who is sick. If you have symptoms of COVID-19, you should get tested. You should also stay home and away from others.
- People who have a condition or are taking medications that weaken the immune system should talk to their healthcare provider to discuss their activities. They may need to keep taking all precautions to prevent COVID-19.
Learn about other FAQs about the COVID-19 vaccine from the CDC.
Learn about COVID-19 vaccine booster shot from the CDC.
How can I convince my family and friends to take a COVID-19 vaccine?
Talking with family and friends about the benefits of getting a COVID-19 vaccine can be hard. You can help by listening without judgment. Doing so can help you find out the root of their concerns. Things that may help open the discussion include:
- listening to questions with empathy,
- asking open-ended questions to explore concerns,
- asking if it is okay to share information,
- helping them find their own reason to get vaccinated, and
- helping make their vaccination happen.
The CDC has suggestions on how to talk about COVID-19 vaccines with friends and family.