The application of each Blue Shield of California medical policy is subject to regulatory requirements and/or plan specific benefits and limitations (Evidence of Coverage - EOC).

Goals of medical policy include:

  • Ensuring safe and effective technologies
  • Supporting an evidence-based approach to technology
  • Providing current and pertinent information regarding technologies (devices, procedures for medical and behavioral health)
  • Improving the quality of care and services provided through Blue Shield

Use medical policy information to provide Blue Shield members with the highest standard of evidence-based medical care that is safe and effective.

Medical policy index

Use this alphabetical index to find Blue Shield medical policies, and review requirements and criteria for new technologies, devices and procedures. The policies are updated frequently - see latest updates.

Find a medical policy for your patients who are out-of-area Blue plan members
 

Medical policy list
Ablation Procedures for Peripheral Neuromas
Ablation of Peripheral Nerves to Treat Pain
Absorbable Nasal Implant for Treatment of Nasal Valve Collapse
Accelerated Breast Irradiation and Brachytherapy Boost After Breast-Conserving Surgery for Early-Stage Breast Cancer
Actigraphy
Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Autologous Fat Grafting to the Breast
Adjustable Cranial Orthoses for Positional Plagiocephaly and Craniosynostoses
Alcohol Injections for Treatment of Peripheral Neuromas
Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Genetic Diseases and Acquired Anemias
Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
Allogeneic Pancreas Transplant
Ambulatory Event Monitors and Mobile Cardiac Outpatient Telemetry
Amniotic Membrane and Amniotic Fluid
Analysis of Human DNA in Stool Samples as a Technique for Colorectal Cancer Screening
Antigen Leukocyte Antibody Test
Aqueous Shunts and Stents for Glaucoma
Assays of Genetic Expression in Tumor Tissue as a Technique to Determine Prognosis in Patients with Breast Cancer
Auditory Brainstem Implant
Autografts and Allografts in the Treatment of Focal Articular Cartilage Lesions
Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation for Focal Articular Cartilage Lesions
Autologous Platelet-Derived Growth Factors for Wound Healing and Other Non‒Orthopedic Conditions
Automated Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Diagnosis of Hypertension in Patients with Elevated Office Blood Pressure
Automated Point-of-Care Nerve Conduction Tests
Autonomic Nervous System Testing
BCR-ABL1 Testing in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
BRAF Gene Variant Testing to Select Melanoma or Glioma Patients for Targeted Therapy
Balloon Dilation of the Eustachian Tube
Balloon Ostial Dilation for Treatment of Chronic Rhinosinusitis
Bariatric Surgery
Baroreflex Stimulation Devices
Behavioral Health Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders
Beta-Amyloid Imaging with Positron Emission Tomography for Alzheimer’s Disease
Bio Engineered Skin and Soft Tissue Substitutes
Biofeedback as a Treatment of Chronic Pain
Biofeedback as a Treatment of Fecal Incontinence or Constipation
Biofeedback as a Treatment of Headache
Biofeedback as a Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Adults
Biofeedback for Miscellaneous Indications
Bioimpedance Devices for Detection and Management of Lymphedema
Biventricular Pacemakers (Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) for the Treatment of Heart Failure
Blepharoplasty, Blepharoptosis Repair (Levator Resection) and Brow Lift (Repair of Brow Ptosis)
Bone Mineral Density Studies
Bone Morphogenetic Protein
Bone Turnover Markers for the Diagnosis and Management of Osteoporosis and Diseases Associated With High Bone Turnover
Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Using Permanently Implanted Seeds
Breast Implant Management
Bronchial Thermoplasty
Bronchial Valves
Cardiac Applications of Positron Emission Tomography Scanning
Cardiac Hemodynamic Monitoring for the Management of Heart Failure in the Outpatient Setting
Cardiac Rehabilitation in the Outpatient Setting
Cardiovascular Risk Panels
Carrier Screening for Genetic Diseases
Catheter Ablation as Treatment for Atrial Fibrillation
Catheter Ablation for Cardiac Arrhythmias
Cellular Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer
Cerebrospinal Fluid and Urinary Biomarkers of Alzheimer Disease
Cervical Spine Surgery
Charged-Particle (Proton or Helium Ion) Radiotherapy for Neoplastic Conditions
Chelation Therapy for Off-Label Uses
Chemical Peels
Chromoendoscopy as an Adjunct to Colonoscopy
Chromosomal Microarray Testing for the Evaluation of Pregnancy Loss
Chronic Intermittent Intravenous Insulin Therapy
Circulating Tumor DNA and Circulating Tumor Cells for Cancer Management (Liquid Biopsy)
Circulating Tumor DNA for Management of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (Liquid Biopsy)
Cleft Palate - Dental Related Services
Closure Devices for Patent Foramen Ovale and Atrial Septal Defects
Cochlear Implant
Cognitive Rehabilitation
Composite Tissue Allotransplantation of the Hand and Face
Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging of the Brain
Computed Tomography to Detect Coronary Artery Calcification
Computer-Aided Evaluation of Malignancy With Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Breast
Computer-Assisted Navigation for Orthopedic Procedure
Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy
Continuous Passive Motion in the Home Setting
Contrast-Enhanced Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography for Coronary Artery Evaluation
Cooling Devices Used in the Outpatient Setting
Corneal Collogen Cross-Linking
Corneal Topography/Computer-Assisted Corneal Topography/Photokeratoscopy
Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography with Selective Noninvasive Fractional Flow Reserve
Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation and Auricular Electrostimulation
Cryosurgical Ablation of Miscellaneous Solid Tumors Other Than Liver, Prostate, or Dermatologic Tumors
Cryosurgical Ablation of Primary or Metastatic Liver Tumors
Cytochrome P450 Genotype-Guided Treatment Strategy
DNA-Based Testing for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis
Deep Brain Stimulation
Dental Anesthesia
Dermatologic Applications of Photodynamic Therapy
Diabetes Prevention Program
Diagnosis and Medical Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome
Digital Breast Tomosynthesis
Discography
Dopamine Transporter Imaging with Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography
Drug Testing in Pain Management and Substance Abuse Treatment
Dry Needling of Myofascial Trigger Points
Dynamic Posturography
Dynamic Spinal Visualization and Vertebral Motion Analysis
Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)
Electrical Bone Growth Stimulation of the Appendicular Skeleton
Electrical Stimulation for the Treatment of Arthritis
Electrical Stimulation of the Spine as an Adjunct to Spinal Fusion Procedures
Electromagnetic Navigation Bronchoscopy
Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Studies
Electronic Brachytherapy for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer
Electrostimulation and Electromagnetic Therapy for Treating Wounds
Endobronchial Brachytherapy
Endobronchial Ultrasound for Diagnosis and Staging of Lung Cancer
Endobronchial Valves
Endoscopic Radiofrequency Ablation or Cryoablation for Barrett Esophagus
Endothelial Keratoplasty
Endovascular Procedures for Intracranial Arterial Disease (Atherosclerosis and Aneurysms)
Endovascular Stent Grafts for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
Endovascular Stent Grafts for Disorders of the Thoracic Aorta
Endovascular Therapies for Extracranial Vertebral Artery Disease
Enhanced External Counterpulsation
Epidural Spine Injections
Esophageal pH Monitoring
Expanded Molecular Panel Testing of Cancers to Identify Targeted Therapies
External Insulin Infusion Pump
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Adult Conditions
Extracorporeal Photopheresis
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment for Plantar Fasciitis and Other Musculoskeletal Conditions
Extracranial Carotid Artery Stenting
Eyelid Thermal Pulsation for the Treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome
Facet Arthroplasty
Fecal Analysis in the Diagnosis of Intestinal Dysbiosis
Fecal Calprotectin Testing
Fecal Microbiota Transplantation
Focal Treatments for Prostate Cancer
Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for Chronic Rhinosinusitis
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain
Functional Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation
Gastric Electrical Stimulation
Gender Reassignment Surgery
Gene Expression Profiling and Protein Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer Management
Gene Expression Profiling for Cutaneous Melanoma
Gene Expression Profiling for Uveal Melanoma
Gene Expression Testing in the Evaluation of Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease
Gene Expression-Based Assays for Cancers of Unknown Primary
General Approach to Evaluating the Utility of Genetic Panels
General Approach to Genetic Testing
Genetic Cancer Susceptibility Panels Using Next-Generation Sequencing
Genetic Testing for Alpha Thalassemia
Genetic Testing for Alpha1-Antitrypsin Deficiency
Genetic Testing for Alzheimer Disease
Genetic Testing for BRCA1 or BRCA2 for Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer Syndrome and Other High-Risk Cancers
Genetic Testing for CHARGE Syndrome
Genetic Testing for Cardiac Ion Channelopathies
Genetic Testing for Cystic Fibrosis
Genetic Testing for Developmental Delay/Intellectual Disability, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Congenital Anomalies
Genetic Testing for Diagnosis and Management of Mental Health Conditions
Genetic Testing for Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy
Genetic Testing for Epilepsy
Genetic Testing for FLT3, NPM1, and CEBPA Variants in Cytogenetically Normal Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Genetic Testing for FMR1 Variants (Including Fragile X Syndrome)
Genetic Testing for Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy
Genetic Testing for Familial Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma
Genetic Testing for Fanconi Anemia
Genetic Testing for Hereditary Hearing Loss
Genetic Testing for Hereditary Hemochromatosis
Genetic Testing for Hereditary Pancreatitis
Genetic Testing for Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia
Genetic Testing for Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Genetic Testing for Inherited Thrombophilia
Genetic Testing for Lactase Insufficiency
Genetic Testing for Li-Fraumeni Syndrome
Genetic Testing for Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophies
Genetic Testing for Lipoprotein(a) Variant(s) as a Decision Aid for Aspirin Treatment
Genetic Testing for Lynch Syndrome and Other Inherited Colon Cancer Syndromes
Genetic Testing for Macular Degeneration
Genetic Testing for Marfan Syndrome, Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections, and Related Disorders
Genetic Testing for Neurofibromatosis
Genetic Testing for PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome
Genetic Testing for Predisposition to Inherited Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Genetic Testing for Rett Syndrome
Genetic Testing for Statin-Induced Myopathy
Genetic Testing for the Diagnosis of Inherited Peripheral Neuropathies
Genetic Testing of CADASIL Syndrome
Genetic Testing of Mitochondrial Disorders
Genetic and Protein Biomarkers for the Diagnosis and Cancer Risk Assessment of Prostate Cancer
Genotype-Guided Tamoxifen Treatment
Genotype-Guided Warfarin Dosing
Handheld Radiofrequency Spectroscopy for Intraoperative Assessment of Surgical Margins During Breast-Conserving Surgery
Heart Transplant
Heart-Lung Transplant
Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Autoimmune Diseases
Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors and Ependymoma
Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma
Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Hodgkin Lymphoma
Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Miscellaneous Solid Tumors in Adults
Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas
Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Plasma Cell Dyscrasias, Including Multiple Myeloma and POEMS Syndrome
Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Primary Amyloidosis
Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Solid Tumors of Childhood
Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia
Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Germ Cell Tumors
Hepatitis C Positive Organs for Transplantation to Non-Viremic Patients
High-Dose Rate Temporary Prostate Brachytherapy
Hip Resurfacing
Hippotherapy
Home Cardiorespiratory Monitoring
Homocysteine Testing in the Screening, Diagnosis, and Management of Cardiovascular Disease and Venous Thromboembolic Disease
Human Leukocyte Antigen Testing for Celiac Disease
Hydrogel Spacer Use During Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Select Intra-Abdominal and Pelvic Malignancies
Hysterectomy Surgery for Benign Conditions
Identification of Microorganisms Using Nucleic Acid Probes
Image-Guided Minimally Invasive Decompression for Spinal Stenosis
Immune Cell Function Assay
Implantable Bone-Conduction and Bone-Anchored Hearing Aids
Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators
Implantable Infusion Pump for Pain and Spasticity
Implantation of Intrastromal Corneal Ring Segments
In Vitro Chemoresistance and Chemosensitivity Assays
Ingestible pH and Pressure Capsule
Inhaled Nitric Oxide
Injectable Bulking Agents for the Treatment of Urinary and Fecal Incontinence
Injectable Clostridial Collagenase for Fibroproliferative Disorders
Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Abdomen and Pelvis
Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy of the Breast and Lung
Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy of the Prostate
Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: Cancer of the Head and Neck or Thyroid
Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: Central Nervous System Tumors
Interferential Current Stimulation
Interim Positron Emission Tomography Scanning in Oncology to Detect Early Response During Treatment
Interspinous Fixation (Fusion) Devices
Interspinous and Interlaminar Stabilization/Distraction Devices (Spacers)
Interventions for Progressive Scoliosis
Intracavitary Balloon Catheter Brain Brachytherapy for Malignant Gliomas or Metastasis to the Brain
Intracellular Micronutrient Analysis
Intradialytic Parenteral Nutrition
Intraocular Radiotherapy for Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Intraoperative Neurophysiologic Monitoring
Intraoperative Radiotherapy
Intravenous Anesthetics for the Treatment of Chronic Pain
Intravenous Antibiotic Therapy and Associated Diagnostic Testing for Lyme Disease
Invasive Prenatal (Fetal) Diagnostic Testing
Islet Transplantation
Isolated Small Bowel Transplant
JAK2, MPL, and CALR Testing for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
KIF6 Genotyping for Predicting Cardiovascular Risk and/or Effectiveness of Statin Therapy
KRAS, NRAS, BRAF Variant Analysis (Including Liquid Biopsy) in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Keratoprosthesis
Kidney Transplant
Knee Arthroplasty for Adults
Knee Arthroscopy in Knee Osteoarthritis
Knee Braces
Laboratory Tests for Heart and Kidney Transplant Rejection
Laboratory and Genetic Testing for Use of 5-Fluorouracil in Patients with Cancer
Laparoscopic and Percutaneous Techniques for the Myolysis of Uterine Fibroids
Laser Treatment of Onychomycosis
Leadless Cardiac Pacemakers
Lifestyle Modification Program for Reversing Heart Disease
Light Therapy for Psoriasis
Lipid Apheresis
Liver Transplant and Combined Liver-Kidney Transplant
Low-Level Laser Therapy
Lower Limb Prostheses
Lumbar Spine Surgery
Lung Volume Reduction Surgery for Severe Emphysema
Lung and Lobar Lung Transplant
Lysis of Epidural Adhesions
Magnetic Esophageal Sphincter Augmentation to Treat Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Detection and Diagnosis of Breast Cancer
Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Monitor the Integrity of Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants
Magnetic Resonance Imaging‒Targeted Biopsy of the Prostate
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Magnetic Resonance-Guided Focused Ultrasound
Magnetoencephalography/Magnetic Source Imaging
Manipulation Under Anesthesia
Measurement of Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Exhaled Breath Condensate in the Diagnosis and Management of Respiratory Disorder
Measurement of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 in the Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk
Measurement of Serum Antibodies to Infliximab and Adalimumab
Meniscal Allografts and Other Meniscal Implants
Microarray-Based Gene Expression Profile Testing for Multiple Myeloma Risk Stratification
Microprocessor-Controlled Prostheses for the Lower Limb
Microwave and Locoregional Laser Tumor Ablation
Miscellaneous (Noncardiac, Nononcologic) Applications of Fluorine 18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography
Miscellaneous Genetic and Molecular Diagnostic Tests
Moderate Penetrance Variants Associated With Breast Cancer in Individuals at High Breast Cancer Risk
Molecular Analysis for Targeted Therapy of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer
Molecular Markers in Fine Needle Aspirates of the Thyroid
Molecular Testing for the Management of Pancreatic Cysts, Barrett Esophagus, and Solid Pancreatic Lesions
Molecular Testing in the Management of Pulmonary Nodules
Monitored Anesthesia Care
Multibiomarker Disease Activity Blood Test for Rheumatoid Arthritis
Multigene Expression Assay for Predicitng Recurrence in Colon Cancer
Multimarker Serum Testing Related to Ovarian Cancer
Multitarget Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing for Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis
Myocardial Strain Imaging
Myocardial Sympathetic Innervation Imaging in Patients With Heart Failure
Myoelectric Prosthetic and Orthotic Components for the Upper Limb
Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in the Outpatient Setting
Nerve Fiber Density Measurement
Nerve Graft With Radical Prostatectomy
Neural Therapy
Neurofeedback
Neuropsychological Testing
Next-Generation Sequencing for the Assessment of Measurable Residual Disease
Noncontact Ultrasound Treatment for Wounds
Noninvasive Fetal RHD Genotyping Using Cell-Free Fetal DNA
Noninvasive Prenatal Screening for Fetal Aneuploidies and Microdeletions Using Cell-Free Fetal DNA
Noninvasive Techniques for the Evaluation and Monitoring of Patients With Chronic Liver Disease
Nonpharmacologic Treatment of Rosacea
Novel Biomarkers in Risk Assessment and Management of Cardiovascular Disease
Nutrient/Nutritional Panel Testing
Occipital Nerve Stimulation
Occlusion of Uterine Arteries Using Transcatheter Embolization
Oncologic Applications of Photodynamic Therapy, Including Barrett Esophagus
Oncologic Applications of Positron Emission Tomography Scanning
Open and Thoracoscopic Approaches to Treat Atrial Fibrillation and Atrial Flutter (Maze and Related Procedures)
Ophthalmologic Techniques That Evaluate the Posterior Segment for Glaucoma
Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Eye Segment
Orthognathic Surgery
Orthopedic Applications of Platelet-Rich Plasma
Orthopedic Applications of Stem Cell Therapy (Including Allografts and Bone Substitutes Used with Autologous Bone Marrow)
Orthoptic Training for the Treatment of Vision or Learning Disabilities
Oscillatory Devices for the Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis and Other Respiratory Conditions
Outpatient Pulmonary Rehabilitation
Ovarian and Internal Iliac Vein Endovascular Occlusion as a Treatment of Pelvic Congestion Syndrome
Panniculectomy, Abdominoplasty, and Surgical Management of Diastasis Recti
Paraspinal Surface Electromyography to Evaluate and Monitor Back Pain
Paravertebral Facet Joint Denervation (Radiofrequency Neurolysis)
Paravertebral Facet Joint Injections or Blocks
Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears and Acromioplasty/Subacromial Decompression
Patient-Controlled End of Range Motion Stretching Devices
Patient-Specific Instrumentation (e.g., Cutting Guides) for Joint Arthroplasty
Pelvic Floor Stimulation as a Treatment of Urinary and Fecal Incontinence
Percutaneous Balloon Kyphoplasty, Radiofrequency Kyphoplasty, and Mechanical Vertebral Augmentation
Percutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Percutaneous Neuromodulation Therapy
Percutaneous Left Atrial Appendage Closure Devices for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation
Percutaneous Tibial Nerve Stimulation
Percutaneous Vertebroplasty and Sacroplasty
Peripheral Subcutaneous Field Stimulation
Periureteral Bulking Agents as a Treatment of Vesicoureteral Reflux
Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for Treatment of Esophageal Achalasia
Personalized Breast Cancer Screening Clinical Trial
Pharmacogenetic Testing for Pain Management
Pharmacogenomic and Metabolite Markers for Patients Treated with Thiopurines
Photodynamic Therapy for Choroidal Neovascularization
Phrenic Nerve Stimulation For Central Sleep Apnea
Physical Therapy
Placental and Umbilical Cord Blood as a Source of Stem Cells
Plugs for Anal Fistula Repair
Pneumatic Compression Pumps for Treatment of Lymphedema and Venous Ulcers
Polysomnography for Non-Respiratory Sleep Disorders
Positional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Positron Emission Mammography
Postsurgical Home Use of Limb Compression Devices for Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis
Power Morcellation for the Treatment of Uterine Fibroids
Power Wheelchairs and Power Operated Vehicles for Permanent Use
Powered Exoskeleton for Ambulation in Patients With Lower-Limb Disabilities
Preimplantation Genetic Testing
Progenitor Cell Therapy for the Treatment of Damaged Myocardium due to Ischemia
Prolotherapy
Prostatic Urethral Lift
Proteogenomic Testing for Patients with Cancer
Proteomic Testing for Systemic Therapy in Non-Small-Cell Lung
Quantitative Assay for Measurement of HER2 Total Protein Expression and HER2 Dimers
Quantitative Electroencephalography as a Diagnostic Aid for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Quantitative Sensory Testing
Radioactive Seed Localization of Nonpalpable Breast Lesions
Radioembolization for Primary and Metastatic Tumors of the Liver
Radiofrequency Ablation of Miscellaneous Solid Tumors Excluding Liver Tumors
Radiofrequency Ablation of Primary or Metastatic Liver Tumors
Radiofrequency Ablation of the Renal Sympathetic Nerves as a Treatment for Resistant Hypertension
Radioimmunoscintigraphy (Monoclonal Antibody Imaging) With Indium 111 Capromab Pendetide for Prostate Cancer
Reconstructive Services
Reduction Mammaplasty for Breast-Related Symptoms
Regional Sympathetic Blocks
Reproductive Techniques
Responsive Neurostimulation for the Treatment of Refractory Facal Epilepsy
Retinal Prosthesis
Retinal Telescreening for Diabetic Retinopathy
Risk-Reducing Mastectomy
ST2 Assay for Chronic Heart Failure and Heart Transplant Rejection
Sacral Nerve Neuromodulation/Stimulation
Sacroiliac Joint Injections
Saturation Biopsy for Diagnosis, Staging, and Management of Prostate Cancer
Scintimammography and Gamma Imaging of the Breast and Axilla
Semi-Implantable and Fully Implantable Middle Ear Hearing Aids
Sensory Integration Therapy and Auditory Integration Therapy
Serum Biomarker Human Epididymis Protein 4
Serum Biomarker Panel Testing for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Other Connective Tissue Diseases
Small Bowel/Liver and Multivisceral Transplant
Speech Therapy
Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block for Headache
Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation
Spine Surgery and Pain Management (summary of changes effective January 1, 2017)
Stem Cell Therapy for Peripheral Arterial Disease
Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy
Steroid-Eluting Sinus Stents
Subtalar Arthroereisis
Surgery for Groin Pain in Athletes
Surgical Deactivation of Headache Trigger Sites
Surgical Treatment of Femoroacetabular Impingement
Surgical Treatment of Gynecomastia
Surgical Treatment of Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome
Surgical Treatments for Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema
Surgical Ventricular Restoration
Synthetic Cartilage Implants for Joint Pain
Targeted Phototherapy and Psoralen with Ultraviolet A for Vitiligo
Temporomandibular Joint Disorder
Testing Serum Vitamin D Levels
Thermography
Thoracic Spine Surgery
Three-Dimensional Printed Orthopedic Implants
Total Artificial Hearts and Implantable Ventricular Assist Devices
Total Hip Arthroplasty for Adults
Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery
Transanal Radiofrequency Treatment of Fecal Incontinence
Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation for Aortic Stenosis
Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization to Treat Primary or Metastatic Liver Malignancies
Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair
Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve Implantation
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation as a Treatment of Depression and Other Psychiatric/Neurologic Disorders
Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation
Transesophageal Endoscopic Therapies for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Transmyocardial Revascularization
Transtympanic Micropressure Applications as a Treatment of Meniere Disease
Transurethral Water Vapor Thermal Therapy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Treatment of Hyperhidrosis
Treatment of Tinnitus
Treatment of Varicose Veins/Venous Insufficiency
Trigger Point and Tender Point Injections
Tumor Treating Fields Therapy
Ultrafiltration in Decompensated Heart Failure
Ultrasonographic Measurement of Carotid Intima-Medial Thickness as an Assessment of Subclinical Atherosclerosis
Ultrasound Accelerated Fracture Healing Device
Urinary Biomarkers for Cancer Screening, Diagnosis, and Surveillance
Use of Common Genetic Variants (Single Nucleotide Variants) to Predict Risk of Nonfamilial Breast Cancer
Vagus Nerve Blocking Therapy for Treatment of Obesity
Vagus Nerve Stimulation
Vertebral Axial Decompression
Vertebral Fracture Assessment With Densitometry
Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib
Vestibular Function Testing
Virtual Colonoscopy/Computed Tomography Colonography
Viscocanalostomy and Canaloplasty
Wearable Cardioverter-Defibrillator
Whole Body Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry to Determine Body Composition
Whole Exome and Whole Genome Sequencing for Diagnosis of Genetic Disorders
Whole Gland Cryoablation of Prostate Cancer
Wireless Capsule Endoscopy to DiagNose Disorders of the Small Bowel, Esophagus, and Colon