Seniors' preventive health guidelines
For men and women age 50 and older
|COVID-19||Recommended for everyone ages 6 months and older29|
|Hepatitis A||For individuals with risk factors; for individuals seeking protection3|
|Hepatitis B||Recommended 2, 3, or 4 dose series depending on vaccine or condition for ages 19 to 594For individuals with risk factors; for individuals seeking protection4|
|Meningococcal||For individuals with risk factors present8|
|MMR (measles, mumps, rubella)||Once, without proof of immunity or if no previous second dose5|
|Pneumococcal (pneumonia)||Recommended for individuals 65 and older; and individuals under age 65 with risk factors7|
|Td booster (tetanus, diphtheria)||Recommended once every 10 years15|
|Varicella (chicken pox)||Recommended for adults without evidence of immunity; 2-dose series 4–8 weeks apart10|
|Zoster (shingles)||Two-dose series of RZV 2-6 months apart|
|AAA (abdominal aortic aneurysm)||For ages 65-75 who have ever smoked, one-time screening for AAA by ultrasonography|
|Alcohol misuse||Screening for unhealthy alcohol use and behavioral counseling as needed for individuals 12 years and older|
|Blood pressure, height, weight, BMI, vision, and hearing||At annual exam|
|BRCA risk assessment and genetic counseling/testing||Women with a positive result on the risk assessment tool or have a family history of breast, ovarian, tubal, prostate, pancreatic, or peritoneal cancer are recommended to receive genetic counseling and/or genetic testing.20|
|Breast cancer||Recommended biennial screening mammography for women aged 40 years and older|
|Breast cancer medication use||Recommended prescription or risk-reducing medications to women age 35 and older who are at increased risk for breast cancer and at low risk for adverse medication effects|
|Cardiovascular disease||Statin use for primary prevention for adults aged 40 to 75 years who have one or more risk factors. Statin use for primary prevention in adults35|
|Cervical cancer||Recommended screening every 3 years with cervical cytology alone, every 5 years with high risk HPV testing alone, or every 5 years with high risk HPV testing in combination with cytology.|
|Chlamydia and gonorrhea||Screening for all sexually active women 24 years or younger and in women 25 years or older who are at increased risk for infection11|
|Colorectal cancer||Screening for adults ages 45-7521|
|Depression/Anxiety||Screening for depression and anxiety in all adults|
|Diabetes/Prediabetes||Screening for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in adults ages 35 to 70 years who are overweight or obese22|
|Domestic violence and abuse||Screening for for intimate partner violence (IPV) in women of reproductive age and provide or refer women to ongoing support services34|
|Drug misuse||Screening for unhealthy drug use for individuals 12 years and older25|
|Fall prevention||Recommended exercise interventions for adults ages 65 or older at increased risk28|
|Healthy diet and physical activity||Behavioral counseling interventions to promote a healthy diet and physical activity for individuals 18 years an older with risk of cardiovascular disease or a diagnosis of hypertension, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, etc.27|
|Hepatitis C||Screening for HCV infection in persons at high risk of infection30|
|HIV||Screening for HIV infection for all adolescents and adults ages 15 to 65. Younger adolescents and older adults who are at increased risk of infection should also be screened. Recommend preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to persons at high risk of HIV acquisition.16Screening for all adolescents and adults ages 12–65. Recommend preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to persons at high risk of HIV acquisition|
|Hypertension||Screening for hypertension in adults 18 years and older with office blood pressure measurement (OBPM). Blood pressure monitoring outside the clinical setting is recommended to confirm diagnosis|
|Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI)||Screening for individuals at increased risk of infection33|
|Lung cancer||Screening for lung cancer annually for individuals ages 50 to 80 years of age with a smoking history of 20 years or more or who have quit within 15 year using low-dose computed tomography 31|
|Obesity||Screening, counseling, and behavioral interventions and offer or refer to comprehensive intensive behavioral intervention to promote improvements in weight status|
|Osteoporosis||Recommended routine screening for osteoporosis with bone measurement testing for women 65 years and older and women younger than 65 who are at increased risk13|
|Sexually transmitted infections||Behavioral counseling for all sexually active adolescents and for adults who are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs).Behavioral counseling as needed26|
|Syphilis||Screening for individuals at increased risk for infection12|
|Tobacco use and cessation||Screening for tobacco use and cessation intervention|
For heart health, adults should exercise regularly (at least 30 minutes a day on most days) which can help reduce the risks of coronary heart disease, osteoporosis, obesity, and diabetes. Consult your physician before starting a new vigorous physical activity.
Topics you may want to discuss with your doctor
- Eat a healthy diet. Limit fat and calories. Eat fruits, vegetables, beans, and whole grains every day.
- Optimal calcium intake is estimated to be 1,500 mg/day for postmenopausal women not on estrogen therapy.
- Vitamin D is important for bone and muscle development, function, and preservation.
- Sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention,16 practice safe sex (use condoms), or abstinence.
- Ongoing follow-up and monitoring must be covered without cost-sharing. Services include periodic HIV testing, serologic testing for hepatitis viruses B and C, periodic serum creatinine testing, periodic pregnancy testing, periodic screening for sexually transmitted bacterial infections, and adherence counseling.
Mental health and substance use disorder
- Stop smoking. Limit alcohol consumption. Avoid alcohol or drug use while driving.
- Mental health and substance use disorders is defined as those conditions listed in the most recent edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Diseases or in the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
- Floss and brush with fluoride toothpaste daily. Seek dental care regularly.
Other topics for discussion
- Fall prevention.
- Possible risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for post-menopausal women.
- The dangers of drug interactions.
- Physical activity.
- Glaucoma eye exam by an eye care professional (i.e., an ophthalmologist, optometrist) for those age 65 and older.
- All children 3 to 5 years are at risk of vision abnormalities and should be screened; specific risk factors include strabismus, refractive errors, and media opacity.
- Annual vaccination against influenza is recommended for all persons age 6 months and older, including all adults. Healthy, nonpregnant adults under age 50 without high-risk medical conditions can receive either intranasally administered live, attenuated influenza vaccine, or inactivated vaccine. Other persons should receive the inactivated vaccine. Adults age 65 and older can receive the standard influenza vaccine or the high-dose influenza vaccine.
- Risk factors for hepatitis A should be discussed with your provider.
- Risk factors for hepatitis B should be discussed with your provider.
- Measles component: Adults born before 1957 can be considered immune to measles. Adults born on or after 1957 should receive one or more doses of MMR , depending upon their immune status. Also, a second dose of MMR may be necessary if exposed, traveling internationally, and other factors. Rubella component: Women with unreliable vaccination history should check with their provider. Check with your doctor for details regarding pregnancy.
- Administer pneumococcal vaccine to children with certain underlying medical conditions, including a cochlear implant. A single revaccination should be administered after 5 years to children with functional or anatomic asplenia or an immunocompromising condition.
- One dose for adults at risk, including those with chronic lung diseases (including asthma and COPD); cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease, chronic renal failure, sickle cell disease, and immunocompromising conditions. Vaccination is also recommended in adults who smoke cigarettes and residents of nursing homes and long-term care facilities. Vaccination is not recommended in Alaskan Native or Native American persons unless they have another risk factor present. A second pneumococcal dose may be necessary for people age 65 and older who received the vaccine more than 5 years previously and were younger than 65 at the time of the primary vaccination. A onetime revaccination is recommended after 5 years for people with certain medical conditions, including immunosuppressive conditions and people who have undergone chemotherapy.
- Individuals at risk for meningococcal disease include international travelers, collegebound students or anyone with a damaged or removed spleen or with terminal complement component deficiency. These individuals should discuss the risks and benefits of vaccination with their doctor.
- Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death for both men and women. It is the most frequently diagnosed among persons aged 65 to 74 years. It is estimated that 10.5% of new colorectal cancer cases occur in persons younger than 50 years.
- Individuals at risk for varicella infection include those who have close contact with persons at high risk for severe disease (healthcare workers and family contacts of immunocompromised persons) or are at high risk for exposure or transmission (e.g., teachers of young children; childcare employees; residents and staff members of institutional settings, including correctional institutions; college students; military personnel; adolescents and adults living in households with children; nonpregnant women of childbearing age; and international travelers).
- Risk factors for chlamydia and gonorrhea infection include history of chlamydial or other sexually transmitted infections, new or multiple sexual partners, inconsistent condom use, commercial sex work, and drug use.
- Risk factors for syphilis infection include all adolescents and adults who receive health care in a high-prevalence or high-risk clinical setting, men who have had sex with men, commercial sex workers, and those in adult correctional facilities. Individuals being treated for sexually transmitted diseases may be more likely than others to engage in high-risk behavior.
- Osteoporotic fractures, particularly hip fractures, are associated with limitation of ambulation, chronic pain and disability, loss of independence and quality of life. Women have higher rates of osteoporosis than men at any given age.
- Pregnant women who are at high risk for preeclampsia should use low-dose aspirin (81 mg/d) as preventive medication after 12 weeks of gestation.
- People in contact with infants under 12 months of age and healthcare personnel can be given the Td vaccine as soon as feasible. It is recommended that Tdap should replace a single dose of Td for adults under age 65 if they have not previously received a dose of Tdap.
- Sexually transmitted infections, also known as sexually transmitted diseases, include chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, HIV, HPV, syphilis, and others. See infection-specific notes for information on risk factors for sexually transmitted infections.
- The Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis) booster is recommended in children ages 11 to 12 who have completed the childhood DTaP immunization series and have not yet received a tetanus and diphtheria (Td) booster dose.
- Children through age 9 getting flu vaccine for the first time – or who received flu vaccine – should get two doses, at least four weeks apart.
- Low-dose aspirin use for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer (CRC) in adults Potential benefit of low dose aspirin (81 mg/d) in adults aged 50 to 59 years who have a10% or greater 10-year CVD risk, are not at increased risk for bleeding, have a life expectancy of at least 10 years, and are willing to take low-dose aspirin daily for at least 10 years.
- For breast cancer screening, BRCA mutation referral for genetic risk assessment and evaluation for breast and ovarian susceptibility is recommended for women with family history associated with an increased risk for deleterious mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Please see Blue Shield of California medical policy on Genetic Testing for Hereditary Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer.
- Colorectal cancer screenings include fecal occult blood annually, sigmoidoscopy every five years, and colonoscopy every 10 years. Beginning age and screening interval can be reduced for patients at increased risk. Multi-targeted stool DNA testing every three years.
- Diabetes screening should be performed 22. for adults ages 40 to 70 who are overweight and obese. Intensive behavioral counseling interventions to promote a healthful diet and physical activity for patients with abnormal blood glucose.
- Selection of conditions based upon “Newborn Screening: Toward a Uniform Screening Panel and System” as authored by the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) and commissioned by the Health Resources and Service Administration (HRSA).
- Fluoride oral supplement should be discussed at preventive care visit if primary water source is deficient in fluoride.
- Risk factors for prostate cancer include African-American men and men with family history of prostate cancer.
- Behavioral counseling to prevent sexually transmitted infections is for sexually active adolescents and adults who meet the following criteria: current sexually transmitted infections, sexually transmitted infections within the past year, multiple current sexual partners, and in non-monogamous relationships if they reside in a community with a high rate of sexually transmitted infections.
- Intensive behavioral counseling to promote healthy diet and physical activity is recommended for all adults who have hyperlipidemia or have any known risk factors for cardiovascular and diet-related chronic disease.
- Falls prevention counseling for older adults to exercise, or physical therapy to prevent falls in community-dwelling adults age 65 and older who are at increased risk for falls.
- Hepatitis B screening for non-pregnant adolescents and adults for hepatitis B virus infection at high risk for infection; pregnant women at their first prenatal visit.
- Hepatitis C screening for adults for hepatitis C virus infection at high risk for infection.
- Lung cancer screening for adults ages 55 to 80 who have a smoking history.
- For self-administered hormonal contraceptives, you may receive up to a 12-month supply.
- Tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) for asymptomatic adults at increased risk for infection.
- Screening and counseling for interpersonal and domestic violence is a covered service for adolescents, women, and women of childbearing age at least annually, and, when needed, those who screen positive are provided or referred to initial intervention services. Mental health is an initial intervention service after screening for interpersonal and domestic violence.
- Statin use for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in adults – The USPSTF recommends that adults without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (i.e., symptomatic coronary artery disease or ischemic stroke) use a low- to moderate-dose statin for the prevention of CVD events and mortality when all of the following criteria are met: 1) they are ages 40 to 75; 2) they have one or more CVD risk factors (i.e., dyslipidemia, diabetes, hypertension or smoking); and 3) they have a calculated 10-year risk of a cardiovascular event of 10% or greater. Identification of dyslipidemia and calculation of 10-year CVD event risk requires universal lipids screening in adults ages 40 to 75. Statin medications are a pharmacy benefit.
Wellvolution is a registered trademark of Blue Shield of California. Wellvolution and all associated digital and in-person health programs, services, and offerings are managed by Solera, Inc., a health company committed to changing lives by guiding people to better health in their communities. These are Blue Shield of California’s Preventive Health Guidelines, which are based on nationally recognized guidelines. Members must refer to their Evidence of Coverage or Certificate of Insurance or Policy for plan/policy coverage of preventive health benefits. Blue Shield of California complies with applicable state laws and federal civil rights laws, and does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, ancestry, religion, sex, marital status, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, age, or disability. Blue Shield of California cumple con las leyes estatales y las leyes federales de derechos civiles vigentes, y no discrimina por motivos de raza, color, país de origen, ascendencia, religión, sexo, estado civil, género, identidad de género, orientación sexual, edad ni discapacidad. Blue Shield of California 遵循適用的州法律和聯邦公民權利法律，並且不以種族、膚色、原國籍、血統、宗教、性別、婚姻狀況、性別認同、性取向、年齡或殘障為由而進行歧視。